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SULTAN MEHMOOD GHAZNAVI, It is essential to know the main reason behind Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, whose most immense fame is India’s seventeen attacks.

Mahmoud Ghaznavi (November 2, 971 – April 30, 1030) was the first independent ruler of the Ghaznaviyah dynasty from 999 to 1030. At the time of his death, his empire had been transformed into a vast military conglomerate. From northwestern Iran to Punjab in the subcontinent, in Khwarzam in Maura al-NahrIt was spread to Makran. Mahmoud continued the bureaucratic, political and cultural tradition of his predecessors, which proved to be the foundation for a Persian state in northern India. Its capital, Ghazni, is an important cultural, commercial and intellectual center of the Islamic world. Developed as a status quo, it almost competed with the principal city of Baghdad. 

Many prominent educationist figures in the capital, such as Alberoni and Firdousi, were appealed. He was the first ruler who adopted the title of Sultan, which marked the extent of its power and protected the Abbasid Caliphate’s ideological connection. 

Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi, one of the few great generals in Islamic history, had about one lac army. His army included ten to fifteen thousand Hindu soldiers and Arab, Ghauri, Seljuk, Afghan, and Mughals. All the troops were recruited from India were mostly Hindus. His commander was also an Indian who was called Commander Hindman.  The Abbasid Caliph addressed and Granted the title of Yamin al-Dawla to Sultan Mahmud in 999. Therefore, the government of Sultan Mahmud’s family is also called the Yemeni Empire.

Battles of Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi

It is vital to know the main reason behind Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi, whose biggest reason is India’s seventeen attacks. There are conspiracy theories regarding Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi. But here are some of his famous successful battles he fought for the expansion of his empire.



The area from Lahore to Peshawar in present-day Pakistan was under a Hindu Raja J. Paul rule.  And Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi’s father, Subaktagin, fought battles in Peshawar and Jalal-Abad in 986. J. Paul was defeated, and the kingdom of Subaktagin spread along the Indus River to Attock. By strengthening the empire, Raja J. Paul, who was already impatient to avenge his defeat, formed a large army and set out to attack Ghazni. In 1001, Raja J. Paul and Sultan Mahmud’s troops clashed near Peshawar. Raja J. Paul was defeated and arrested along with the whole family. After negotiations and a hefty ransom, J. Paul returned to Lahore.


 Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi’s second attack took place in 1004. The state near the Satluj River, which had Raja Baji Rao. The third attack took place in 1006 against the ruler of Multan, Abul-Fatah, but on the way to the Indus River, On the shore, J. Paul’s son, Anand Paul, was defeated after a fierce battle. And according to some traditions, he fled to Kashmir for asylum. After defeating Anand Paul, Sultan Mahmud turned to Multan, and After the conquest of Multan, it is said that Sikh Pal was appointed as the ruler of Multan, the grandson of J. Paul, who had converted to Islam.

Soon Sultan Mahmud had to go to Multan again, where Sikh Pal had revolted. In 1008 the Sultan defeated Sikh Paul and deposed them. Meanwhile, Anand Paul, who had fled Kashmir after being defeated, returned and again declared war on the Sultan.  In the last days of 1008, war broke out again in the Attock area near the Indus River. After the bloody conflict, Anand Paul was defeated again.


In the last months of 1009, Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi invaded India, first conquering Narayanpur and then in 1010 annexed the area around Multan. In 1014, the Sultan encountered Anand Paul’s son, Lujan Paul, in the present location of Kohistan was defeated and butchered a large army from Kashmir who came to help Lujan Paul. In 1015, Sultan Mahmud invaded Kashmir but due to snow and the closed road had to go back without a war. In 1018, Sultan Mahmood Ghaznzvi laid siege to a famous state of Qanuj after conquering the Hindu religious site of Mathura in the Jumna River area across Punjab for the first time.

In 1019, Raja Ganda of Kalangar, an adjoining state of Qanuj, attacked Qanuj and killed Raja.  He was shot and defeated. Sultan Mahmud defeated raja Lujan Paul and Raja Ganda. The two jointly prepared for a powerful attack, and once again, in 1019, the Sultan also had to travel to India for their repression.  As a result, both kings were defeated, and the Hindu monarchy was overthrown.



Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi was engaged in conquests in the northwestern part of the empire and the Euphrates River’s valleys between 1020 and 1025. Sultan got reports that all the northern and central Indian states were from the Sultan; they waved their hands for revenge. And now, a joint attack is being prepared at a very famous temple Somnath in Gujarat’s Kathiawar area. Somnat was a magnificent temple on the beach, which had a central status among Hindus throughout India. War Preparations were underway for the Sultan to prepare for the advance attack. The distance from Ghazni to Somnat is about 2600 km, of which 500 km was the most challenging desert in Cholistan and Rajasthan. 


Sultan Mehmut (Temerlane)

 After Somnath, Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi’s last battle over India took place in 1027, spread from the Indus River to the middle of the Beas River. For the last two or three years, Sultan Mahmoud Ghaznavi himself remained ill. He carried out his previous combat campaign in 1029 in Ray’s Iranian region and defeated Ray’s ruler, Al-Boye.

Please let me know if I missed anything.

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Muhammad Ali is a blogger and content writer on different topics. He has worked on projects in the field of education, travelling, tourism, and freelancing. Your kind suggestions and corrections are always welcome.

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February 28, 2021 3:58 am

Quite interesting to read

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